China's foreign trade "big but not strong" should foster new international competitive advantage

Number of visits: Date:2016-09-19 15:35:53

March 5, Premier Li Keqiang at the Twelfth National People's Congress made at the second meeting of the "Government Work Report", a comprehensive summary of the past year, China's economic and social achievements, profound analysis of the situation and the current problems, propose the work of the government vision and policy priorities of the new year. "Government Work Report" relates to economic and social development of all aspects of foreign trade is an important part of it. "Government Work Report" made by constructing new open economic system, to promote a new round of open, Forced domestic reform and restructuring, accelerating the development of new advantages in international competition, and create a high level of opening up a new situation.

2013, China's import and export trade volume grew by 7.6%. Although this growth and reform and opening up 35 years, the average growth of 16.4% compared to the level is not high, but still more than twice the actual growth rate of global trade over the same period, the slow recovery in the global economy, the international market demand remains in the doldrums background, it is hard to come by. Also in this year, China's foreign trade position in world trade has leapt to a new level, to $ 4.16 trillion of scale ranked first. This is the history of China's foreign trade development of a new milestone. However, China as a trading power from the power business objectives How far? This is a concern proposition.

Status and influence trading power

China's import and export trade in the global level significantly higher than the steady growth to achieve a new breakthrough, in 1990, total trade of our country in the world rankings for the 15th place in 2000 to improve the seventh place, in 2013 became the world's first one. Fast rise speed, attracted worldwide attention. Import and export trade growth for China what it means, on the world what kind of impact?

In terms of export, in 2013 the size of $ 2.2 trillion, equivalent to 24.1% of the total that year of GDP. In recent years, foreign trade to economic growth rate averaging about 18%. According to Commerce Department estimates that China's foreign trade directly and indirectly led to the country 180 million jobs, most of which come from rural areas, employment income and living has been significantly improved. We also achieved through the outlet level of modern management, production and upgrading manufacturing technology and international competitiveness. Made in China from the world to get a strong guarantee of basic consumer goods, production materials and equipment supply, access to low cost high quality, diverse product choices. China's exports accounted for the proportion of the world has increased from less than 1% of the reform and opening up to the current level of around 12%.

From the point of view of imports, in 2013 China purchased in other countries (regions) $ 1.95 trillion of goods, equivalent to 19.6% of annual GDP. Many important overseas mineral resources and commodities through imports to meet domestic consumption and production. China importing countries in the world (regions) provide a huge market space and growth opportunities. 2001-- During 2013, China's imports totaled US $ 13 trillion in global trade increased demand for about 13% of the contribution from Chinese import growth.

The role of import and export trade is not only reflected in the above two aspects. Import and export commodities accelerated structural adjustment of the industrial structure upgrade, in order to improve and optimize the global industrial chain, facilitating cross-border industrial division to create the conditions; long-term trade surplus foreign exchange reserves growth and enhance their ability to pay and the ability to resist risks of international , but also to lend a helping hand to our deep debt crisis or economically less developed countries, the stability of international financial markets played a role; unremitting reform and trade policy environment, the promotion of trade facilitation and transaction efficiency, as enhance the level of internationalization of our economy, promote market-oriented reform and construction to make a positive contribution, but also for many developing countries of the world can learn from experience.

"Big but not strong" mainly

Although we have deserved trading nation, but not really a trade power, the main gaps and problems in the following areas:

First, our industry in general is still at the low end of the global value chain, lack of core competitiveness, export low value-added level. At present, China's processing trade exports still account for nearly one-third of the proportion of core components and key technology and equipment mainly dependent on imports, domestic production to processing and assembly-based, value-added is very limited, with low corporate returns.

Second, the lack of local enterprises with international competitiveness of technology, brand, pricing hands of the transnationals export high-tech products to foreign dependence. Although China's export structure continues to optimize the proportion of high-tech products continued to rise in 2013, the proportion of exports of electromechanical and high-tech products has reached 57.3% and 29.9%, but the proportion of foreign-funded enterprises were up 61.2% and 73.0%.

Third, the level of development of China's service trade is low, companies less competitive. China's service trade import and export in 2013 reached 539.64 billion US dollars, the United States is only 47.4%, of which exports $ 210.59 billion, less than the United States 1 / 3.2013 years of service trade deficit amounted to 118.46 billion US dollars, is the world's largest service trade deficit one of the countries, while the surplus in services is as high as US $ 231.63 billion, and China 's trade surplus considerably. Export scale of China's knowledge-intensive technology in the areas of finance, insurance, and other high-end services for small, low competitiveness.

Fourth, the traditional advantages of the challenges, uncertainties in the external environment continues to increase, the growing international competitive pressures increase. First, in recent years, China's labor costs continue to rise, water, electricity, industrial land prices rose sharply, weakening factor cost advantages; the second is a large number of high energy consumption, high pollution and resource exports rapid growth, high specific gravity, increase resources and environmental pressures, and constraints facing difficult adjustment. Third, long-lasting goods trade imbalances in the push up domestic liquidity expansion and inflation at the same time, lead to trade protectionism, pressure, increasing trade friction against China. Fourth, the sharp appreciation of the yuan, the developed countries "re-industrialization", as well as other emerging economies highlights the cost advantages, international competition faced by our exports.

Important initiatives to cultivate new competitive advantages

Eighth session of the Third Plenary adopted the "Decision on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reform", clearly stated that "the new system to build an open economy," the strategic plan. "Government Work Report" will create a high level of opening up a new situation as one of the priorities in 2014, and accelerate the development around the new international competitive advantage made specific strategic plan:

First, take the initiative to expand all-round opening up. Adhere to actively and effectively utilize foreign investment, further liberalization of investment entry and facilitate the expansion of the service sector opening up, creating a transparent, stable, predictable and fair competition within the foreign business environment more attractive to foreign multinational investment. Deepen and promote China Shanghai Free Trade Zone test, explore new ways, new model of reform and opening. Efforts to form a new pattern of all-round opening up coastal areas, inland and border areas linkage.

The second is to promote the balanced development of trade and export to upgrade from a strategic height. 2014 import and export volume is expected to increase by about 7.5%. In order to create favorable conditions to achieve this goal, the government will maintain stable export policies, to further improve the policy system to promote trade, strengthen customs clearance and other trade facilitation reforms, establish a sound to encourage cross-border e-commerce and other new form of development on a pilot basis in the policy system Wait.

The third is to enhance the competitiveness of going out. Government to speed up the reform of foreign investment management, sound financial, legal, consular and other services to protect, to go out to facilitate the protection and support; other hand, the economic belt of the Silk Road, the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st century, and in BCIM large area Pakistan economic corridor and other international platform to expand more room for development cooperation.

Fourth, co-ordination and more open to bilateral and regional cooperation. China will continue to promote negotiations on the Agreement on Trade in Services, the Agreement on Government Procurement, an agreement on information technology, environmental protection and accelerate the negotiations on new issues, e-commerce; the same time, will actively participate in the construction of high-standard FTA, China-US, China-EU investment agreement negotiations, speed up the negotiations with South Korea, Australia, the Gulf cooperation Council and other FTA process; insist on promoting trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, promotion open soft power.

Prospects trade power construction

History proved that China's open economy has embarked on the construction of a line with world trends, development road suitable for China's national conditions. New year, despite the international economic environment, there are still many uncertainties in the global economic recovery is hard for a significant rebound in the domestic economy there is a greater downward pressure on the basis of maintaining sustained growth in foreign trade is not yet solid. But the price level stable, reducing the burden intensified decentralization, trade facilitation and liberalization effects continue to appear, both for the realization of foreign trade growth in 2014 is expected to provide many favorable objective conditions.

Medium and long term, the new open economy will achieve positive progress in institution-building, reform and opening up of dividends and the vitality of enterprises will be fully released; foreign trade development mode, open, service outsourcing development, independent innovation capability and brand services to enhance the effect of driving It will gradually appear; the advantages of human resources in the country, the Silk Road economic belt and the 21st century maritime Silk Road and other major international channel construction, mutual benefit and win-win economic cooperation network and rapid increase in bilateral and multilateral trade and investment liberalization arrangements will significantly accelerate the development of China's international cooperation in the new competitive advantage for our long-term sustained and healthy development of foreign trade, continue to inject new impetus.

(The author is a researcher at the State Council Development Research Center, Zhao Jinping Luo Yuze)

TypeInfo: Industry News

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